SmartMusic Finale Garritan MusicXML

Direction Elements

    MusicXML™ direction.mod module

    Version 3.0
    Copyright © 2004-2011 MakeMusic, Inc.
    This MusicXML™ work is being provided by the copyright
    holder under the MusicXML Public License Version 3.0,
    available from:

    This direction DTD module contains the direction element
    and its children. Directions are not note-specific, but
    instead are associated with a part or the overall score.
    Harmony indications and general print and sound
    suggestions are likewise not necessarily attached to
    particular note elements, and are included here as well.

<!-- Entities -->

    The tip-direction entity represents the direction in which
    the tip of a stick or beater points, using Unicode arrow
<!ENTITY % tip-direction
    "(up | down | left | right |
      northwest | northeast | southeast | southwest)">

<!-- Elements -->

    A direction is a musical indication that is not attached
    to a specific note. Two or more may be combined to
    indicate starts and stops of wedges, dashes, etc.

    By default, a series of direction-type elements and a
    series of child elements of a direction-type within a
    single direction element follow one another in sequence
    visually. For a series of direction-type children, non-
    positional formatting attributes are carried over from
    the previous element by default.
<!ELEMENT direction (direction-type+, offset?,
    %editorial-voice;, staff?, sound?)>
<!ATTLIST direction

    Textual direction types may have more than 1 component
    due to multiple fonts. The dynamics element may also be
    used in the notations element, and is defined in the
    common.mod file.
<!ELEMENT direction-type (rehearsal+ | segno+ | words+ |
    coda+ | wedge | dynamics+ | dashes | bracket | pedal |
    metronome | octave-shift | harp-pedals | damp | damp-all |
    eyeglasses | string-mute | scordatura | image |
    principal-voice | accordion-registration | percussion+ |

    Entities related to print suggestions apply to the
    individual direction-type, not to the overall direction.

    Language is Italian ("it") by default. Enclosure is
    square by default. Left justification is assumed if
    not specified.
<!ELEMENT rehearsal (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST rehearsal

    Left justification is assumed if not specified.
    Language is Italian ("it") by default. Enclosure
    is none by default.
<!ELEMENT words (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST words

    Wedge spread is measured in tenths of staff line space.
    The type is crescendo for the start of a wedge that is
    closed at the left side, and diminuendo for the start
    of a wedge that is closed on the right side. Spread
    values at the start of a crescendo wedge or end of a
    diminuendo wedge are ignored. The niente attribute is yes
    if a circle appears at the point of the wedge, indicating
    a crescendo from nothing or diminuendo to nothing. It is
    no by default, and used only when the type is crescendo,
    or the type is stop for a wedge that began with a diminuendo
    type. The line-type is solid by default. The continue type
    is used for formatting wedges over a system break, or for
    other situations where a single wedge is divided into
    multiple segments.
<!ATTLIST wedge
    type (crescendo | diminuendo | stop | continue) #REQUIRED
    number %number-level; #IMPLIED
    spread %tenths; #IMPLIED
    niente %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    Dashes, used for instance with cresc. and dim. marks.
<!ATTLIST dashes
    type %start-stop-continue; #REQUIRED
    number %number-level; #IMPLIED

    Brackets are combined with words in a variety of
    modern directions. The line-end attribute specifies
    if there is a jog up or down (or both), an arrow,
    or nothing at the start or end of the bracket. If
    the line-end is up or down, the length of the jog
    can be specified using the end-length attribute.
    The line-type is solid by default.
<!ELEMENT bracket EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST bracket
    type %start-stop-continue; #REQUIRED
    number %number-level; #IMPLIED
    line-end (up | down | both | arrow | none) #REQUIRED
    end-length %tenths; #IMPLIED

    Piano pedal marks. The line attribute is yes if pedal
    lines are used. The sign attribute is yes if Ped and *
    signs are used. For MusicXML 2.0 compatibility, the sign
    attribute is yes by default if the line attribute is no,
    and is no by default if the line attribute is yes. The
    change and continue types are used when the line attribute
    is yes. The change type indicates a pedal lift and retake
    indicated with an inverted V marking. The continue type
    allows more precise formatting across system breaks and for
    more complex pedaling lines. The alignment attributes are
    ignored if the line attribute is yes.
<!ATTLIST pedal
    type (start | stop | continue | change) #REQUIRED
    line %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    sign %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    Metronome marks and other metric relationships.
    The beat-unit values are the same as for a type element,
    and the beat-unit-dot works like the dot element. The
    per-minute element can be a number, or a text description
    including numbers. The parentheses attribute indicates
    whether or not to put the metronome mark in parentheses;
    its value is no if not specified. If a font is specified for
    the per-minute element, it overrides the font specified for
    the overall metronome element. This allows separate
    specification of a music font for beat-unit and a text
    font for the numeric value in cases where a single
    metronome font is not used.

    The metronome-note and metronome-relation elements
    allow for the specification of more complicated metric
    relationships, such as swing tempo marks where
    two eighths are equated to a quarter note / eighth note
    triplet. The metronome-type, metronome-beam, and
    metronome-dot elements work like the type, beam, and
    dot elements. The metronome-tuplet element uses the
    same element structure as the time-modification element
    along with some attributes from the tuplet element. The
    metronome-relation element describes the relationship
    symbol that goes between the two sets of metronome-note
    elements. The currently allowed value is equals, but this
    may expand in future versions. If the element is empty,
    the equals value is used. The metronome-relation and
    the following set of metronome-note elements are optional
    to allow display of an isolated Grundschlagnote.
<!ELEMENT metronome
    ((beat-unit, beat-unit-dot*,
     (per-minute | (beat-unit, beat-unit-dot*))) |
    (metronome-note+, (metronome-relation, metronome-note+)?))>
<!ATTLIST metronome
    parentheses %yes-no; #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT beat-unit (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT beat-unit-dot EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT per-minute (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST per-minute

<!ELEMENT metronome-note
    (metronome-type, metronome-dot*,
     metronome-beam*, metronome-tuplet?)>
<!ELEMENT metronome-relation (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT metronome-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT metronome-dot EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT metronome-beam (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST metronome-beam
    number %beam-level; "1"
<!ELEMENT metronome-tuplet
    (actual-notes, normal-notes,
     (normal-type, normal-dot*)?)>
<!ATTLIST metronome-tuplet
    type %start-stop; #REQUIRED
    bracket %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    show-number (actual | both | none) #IMPLIED

    Octave shifts indicate where notes are shifted up or down
    from their true pitched values because of printing
    difficulty. Thus a treble clef line noted with 8va will
    be indicated with an octave-shift down from the pitch
    data indicated in the notes. A size of 8 indicates one
    octave; a size of 15 indicates two octaves.
<!ELEMENT octave-shift EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST octave-shift
    type (up | down | stop | continue) #REQUIRED
    number %number-level; #IMPLIED
    size CDATA "8"

    The harp-pedals element is used to create harp pedal
    diagrams. The pedal-step and pedal-alter elements use
    the same values as the step and alter elements. For
    easiest reading, the pedal-tuning elements should follow
    standard harp pedal order, with pedal-step values of
    D, C, B, E, F, G, and A.
<!ELEMENT harp-pedals (pedal-tuning)+>
<!ATTLIST harp-pedals
<!ELEMENT pedal-tuning (pedal-step, pedal-alter)>
<!ELEMENT pedal-step (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT pedal-alter (#PCDATA)>

<!-- Harp damping marks -->
<!ATTLIST damp
<!ELEMENT damp-all EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST damp-all

<!-- Eyeglasses, common in commercial music. -->
<!ELEMENT eyeglasses EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST eyeglasses

<!-- String mute on and mute off symbols -->
<!ELEMENT string-mute EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST string-mute
    type (on | off) #REQUIRED

    Scordatura string tunings are represented by a series
    of accord elements. The tuning-step, tuning-alter,
    and tuning-octave elements are also used with the
    staff-tuning element, and are defined in the common.mod
    file. Strings are numbered from high to low.
<!ELEMENT scordatura (accord+)>
<!ELEMENT accord
    (tuning-step, tuning-alter?, tuning-octave)>
<!ATTLIST accord
    string CDATA #REQUIRED

    The image element is used to include graphical images
    in a score. The required source attribute is the URL
    for the image file. The required type attribute is the
    MIME type for the image file format. Typical choices
    include application/postscript, image/gif, image/jpeg,
    image/png, and image/tiff.
<!ATTLIST image
    source CDATA #REQUIRED

    The principal-voice element represents principal and
    secondary voices in a score, either for analysis or
    for square bracket symbols that appear in a score.
    The symbol attribute indicates the type of symbol used at
    the start of the principal-voice. Valid values are
    Hauptstimme, Nebenstimme, plain (for a plain square
    bracket), and none. The content of the principal-voice
    element is used for analysis and may be any text value.
    When used for analysis separate from any printed score
    markings, the symbol attribute should be set to "none".
<!ELEMENT principal-voice (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST principal-voice
    type %start-stop; #REQUIRED
    symbol (Hauptstimme | Nebenstimme | plain | none) #REQUIRED

    The accordion-registration element is use for accordion
    registration symbols. These are circular symbols divided
    horizontally into high, middle, and low sections that
    correspond to 4', 8', and 16' pipes. Each accordion-high,
    accordion-middle, and accordion-low element represents
    the presence of one or more dots in the registration
    diagram. The accordion-middle element may have text
    values of 1, 2, or 3, corresponding to have 1 to 3 dots
    in the middle section. An accordion-registration element
    needs to have at least one of the child elements present.
<!ELEMENT accordion-registration
    (accordion-high?, accordion-middle?, accordion-low?)>
<!ATTLIST accordion-registration
<!ELEMENT accordion-high EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT accordion-middle (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT accordion-low EMPTY>

    The percussion element is used to define percussion
    pictogram symbols. Definitions for these symbols can be
    found in Kurt Stone's "Music Notation in the Twentieth
    Century" on pages 206-212 and 223. Some values are
    added to these based on how usage has evolved in
    the 30 years since Stone's book was published.
<!ELEMENT percussion
    (glass | metal | wood | pitched | membrane | effect |
     timpani | beater | stick | stick-location |
<!ATTLIST percussion

    The glass element represents pictograms for glass
    percussion instruments. The one valid value is
    wind chimes.
<!ELEMENT glass (#PCDATA)>

    The metal element represents pictograms for metal
    percussion instruments. Valid values are almglocken, bell,
    bell plate, brake drum, Chinese cymbal, cowbell,
    crash cymbals, crotale, cymbal tongs, domed gong,
    finger cymbals, flexatone, gong, hi-hat, high-hat cymbals,
    handbell, sistrum, sizzle cymbal, sleigh bells,
    suspended cymbal, tam tam, triangle, and Vietnamese hat.
    The hi-hat value refers to a pictogram like Stone's
    high-hat cymbals, but without the long vertical line
    at the bottom.
<!ELEMENT metal (#PCDATA)>

    The wood element represents pictograms for wood
    percussion instruments. Valid values are board clapper,
    cabasa, castanets, claves, guiro, log drum, maraca,
    maracas, ratchet, sandpaper blocks, slit drum,
    temple block, vibraslap, and wood block. The maraca
    and maracas values distinguish the one- and two-maraca
    versions of the pictogram. The castanets and vibraslap
    values are in addition to Stone's list.

    The pitched element represents pictograms for pitched
    percussion instruments. Valid values are chimes,
    glockenspiel, mallet, marimba, tubular chimes, vibraphone,
    and xylophone. The chimes and tubular chimes values
    distinguish the single-line and double-line versions of the
    pictogram. The mallet value is in addition to Stone's list.
<!ELEMENT pitched (#PCDATA)>

    The membrane element represents pictograms for membrane
    percussion instruments. Valid values are bass drum,
    bass drum on side, bongos, conga drum, goblet drum,
    military drum, snare drum, snare drum snares off,
    tambourine, tenor drum, timbales, and tomtom. The
    goblet drum value is in addition to Stone's list.
<!ELEMENT membrane (#PCDATA)>

    The effect element represents pictograms for sound effect
    percussion instruments. Valid values are anvil, auto horn,
    bird whistle, cannon, duck call, gun shot, klaxon horn,
    lions roar, police whistle, siren, slide whistle,
    thunder sheet, wind machine, and wind whistle. The cannon
    value is in addition to Stone's list.
<!ELEMENT effect (#PCDATA)>

    The timpani element represents the timpani pictogram.
<!ELEMENT timpani EMPTY>

    The beater element represents pictograms for beaters,
    mallets, and sticks that do not have different materials
    represented in the pictogram. Valid values are bow,
    chime hammer, coin, finger, fingernail, fist,
    guiro scraper, hammer, hand, jazz stick, knitting needle,
    metal hammer, snare stick, spoon mallet, triangle beater,
    triangle beater plain, and wire brush. The jazz stick value
    refers to Stone's plastic tip snare stick. The triangle
    beater plain value refers to the plain line version of the
    pictogram. The finger and hammer values are in addition
    to Stone's list. The tip attribute represents the direction
    in which the tip of a beater points.

<!ELEMENT beater (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST beater
    tip %tip-direction; #IMPLIED

    The stick element represents pictograms where the material
    in the stick, mallet, or beater is included. Valid values
    for stick-type are bass drum, double bass drum, timpani,
    xylophone, and yarn. Valid values for stick-material are
    soft, medium, hard, shaded, and x. The shaded and x values
    reflect different uses for brass, wood, and steel core
    beaters of different types. The tip attribute represents
    the direction in which the tip of a stick points.

<!ELEMENT stick (stick-type, stick-material)>
<!ATTLIST stick
    tip %tip-direction; #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT stick-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT stick-material (#PCDATA)>

    The stick-location element represents pictograms for the
    location of sticks, beaters, or mallets on cymbals, gongs,
    drums, and other instruments. Valid values are center,
    rim, cymbal bell, and cymbal edge.
<!ELEMENT stick-location (#PCDATA)>

    The other-percussion element represents percussion
    pictograms not defined elsewhere.
<!ELEMENT other-percussion (#PCDATA)>

    The other-direction element is used to define any direction
    symbols not yet in the current version of the MusicXML
    format. This allows extended representation, though without
    application interoperability.
<!ELEMENT other-direction (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST other-direction

    An offset is represented in terms of divisions, and
    indicates where the direction will appear relative to
    the current musical location. This affects the visual
    appearance of the direction. If the sound attribute is
    "yes", then the offset affects playback too. If the sound
    attribute is "no", then any sound associated with the
    direction takes effect at the current location. The sound
    attribute is "no" by default for compatibility with earlier
    versions of the MusicXML format. If an element within a
    direction includes a default-x attribute, the offset value
    will be ignored when determining the appearance of that
<!ELEMENT offset (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST offset
    sound %yes-no; #IMPLIED

<!-- Harmony -->

    The harmony elements are based on Humdrum's **harm
    encoding, extended to support chord symbols in popular
    music as well as functional harmony analysis in classical
    If there are alternate harmonies possible, this can be
    specified using multiple harmony elements differentiated
    by type. Explicit harmonies have all note present in the
    music; implied have some notes missing but implied;
    alternate represents alternate analyses.
    The harmony object may be used for analysis or for
    chord symbols. The print-object attribute controls
    whether or not anything is printed due to the harmony
    element. The print-frame attribute controls printing
    of a frame or fretboard diagram. The print-style entity
    sets the default for the harmony, but individual elements
    can override this with their own print-style values.
    A harmony element can contain many stacked chords (e.g.
    V of II). A sequence of harmony-chord entities is used
    for this type of secondary function, where V of II would
    be represented by a harmony-chord with a V function
    followed by a harmony-chord with a II function.
<!ENTITY % harmony-chord "((root | function), kind,
    inversion?, bass?, degree*)">

<!ELEMENT harmony ((%harmony-chord;)+, frame?,
    offset?, %editorial;, staff?)>
<!ATTLIST harmony
    type (explicit | implied | alternate) #IMPLIED
    print-frame  %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    A root is a pitch name like C, D, E, where a function
    is an indication like I, II, III. Root is generally
    used with pop chord symbols, function with classical
    functional harmony. It is an either/or choice to avoid
    data inconsistency. Function requires that the key be
    specified in the encoding.

    The root element has a root-step and optional root-alter
    similar to the step and alter elements in a pitch, but
    renamed to distinguish the different musical meanings.
    The root-step text element indicates how the root should
    appear in a score if not using the element contents.
    In some chord styles, this will include the root-alter
    information as well. In that case, the print-object
    attribute of the root-alter element can be set to no.
    The root-alter location attribute indicates whether
    the alteration should appear to the left or the right
    of the root-step; it is right by default.
<!ELEMENT root (root-step, root-alter?)>
<!ELEMENT root-step (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST root-step
<!ELEMENT root-alter (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST root-alter
    location %left-right; #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT function (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST function

    Kind indicates the type of chord. Degree elements
    can then add, subtract, or alter from these
    starting points. Values include:
        major (major third, perfect fifth)
        minor (minor third, perfect fifth)
        augmented (major third, augmented fifth)
        diminished (minor third, diminished fifth)
        dominant (major triad, minor seventh)
        major-seventh (major triad, major seventh)
        minor-seventh (minor triad, minor seventh)
            (diminished triad, diminished seventh)
            (augmented triad, minor seventh)
            (diminished triad, minor seventh)
            (minor triad, major seventh)
        major-sixth (major triad, added sixth)
        minor-sixth (minor triad, added sixth)
        dominant-ninth (dominant-seventh, major ninth)
        major-ninth (major-seventh, major ninth)
        minor-ninth (minor-seventh, major ninth)
    11ths (usually as the basis for alteration):
        dominant-11th (dominant-ninth, perfect 11th)
        major-11th (major-ninth, perfect 11th)
        minor-11th (minor-ninth, perfect 11th)
    13ths (usually as the basis for alteration):
        dominant-13th (dominant-11th, major 13th)
        major-13th (major-11th, major 13th)
        minor-13th (minor-11th, major 13th)
        suspended-second (major second, perfect fifth)
        suspended-fourth (perfect fourth, perfect fifth)
    Functional sixths:
        pedal (pedal-point bass)
        power (perfect fifth)
    The "other" kind is used when the harmony is entirely
    composed of add elements. The "none" kind is used to
    explicitly encode absence of chords or functional

    The attributes are used to indicate the formatting
    of the symbol. Since the kind element is the constant
    in all the harmony-chord entities that can make up
    a polychord, many formatting attributes are here.

    The use-symbols attribute is yes if the kind should be
    represented when possible with harmony symbols rather
    than letters and numbers. These symbols include:

        major: a triangle, like Unicode 25B3
        minor: -, like Unicode 002D
        augmented: +, like Unicode 002B
        diminished: °, like Unicode 00B0
        half-diminished: ø, like Unicode 00F8

    For the major-minor kind, only the minor symbol is used when
    use-symbols is yes. The major symbol is set using the symbol
    attribute in the degree-value element. The corresponding
    degree-alter value will usually be 0 in this case.

    The text attribute describes how the kind should be spelled
    in a score. If use-symbols is yes, the value of the text
    attribute follows the symbol. The stack-degrees attribute
    is yes if the degree elements should be stacked above each
    other. The parentheses-degrees attribute is yes if all the
    degrees should be in parentheses. The bracket-degrees
    attribute is yes if all the degrees should be in a bracket.
    If not specified, these values are implementation-specific.
    The alignment attributes are for the entire harmony-chord
    entity of which this kind element is a part.
<!ATTLIST kind
    use-symbols          %yes-no;   #IMPLIED
    text                 CDATA      #IMPLIED
    stack-degrees        %yes-no;   #IMPLIED
    parentheses-degrees  %yes-no;   #IMPLIED
    bracket-degrees      %yes-no;   #IMPLIED

    Inversion is a number indicating which inversion is used:
    0 for root position, 1 for first inversion, etc.
<!ELEMENT inversion (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST inversion

    Bass is used to indicate a bass note in popular music
    chord symbols, e.g. G/C. It is generally not used in
    functional harmony, as inversion is generally not used
    in pop chord symbols. As with root, it is divided into
    step and alter elements, similar to pitches. The attributes
    for bass-step and bass-alter work the same way as
    the corresponding attributes for root-step and root-alter.
<!ELEMENT bass (bass-step, bass-alter?)>
<!ELEMENT bass-step (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST bass-step
<!ELEMENT bass-alter (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST bass-alter
    location (left | right) #IMPLIED

    The degree element is used to add, alter, or subtract
    individual notes in the chord. The degree-value element
    is a number indicating the degree of the chord (1 for
    the root, 3 for third, etc). The degree-alter element
    is like the alter element in notes: 1 for sharp, -1 for
    flat, etc. The degree-type element can be add, alter, or
    subtract. If the degree-type is alter or subtract, the
    degree-alter is relative to the degree already in the
    chord based on its kind element. If the degree-type is
    add, the degree-alter is relative to a dominant chord
    (major and perfect intervals except for a minor
    seventh). The print-object attribute can be used to
    keep the degree from printing separately when it has
    already taken into account in the text attribute of
    the kind element. The plus-minus attribute is used to
    indicate if plus and minus symbols should be used
    instead of sharp and flat symbols to display the degree
    alteration; it is no by default.

    The degree-value and degree-type text attributes specify
    how the value and type of the degree should be displayed
    in a score. The degree-value symbol attribute indicates
    that a symbol should be used in specifying the degree.
    If the symbol attribute is present, the value of the text
    attribute follows the symbol.
    A harmony of kind "other" can be spelled explicitly by
    using a series of degree elements together with a root.
<!ELEMENT degree (degree-value, degree-alter, degree-type)>
<!ATTLIST degree
<!ELEMENT degree-value (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST degree-value
    symbol (major | minor | augmented |
        diminished | half-diminished) #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT degree-alter (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST degree-alter
    plus-minus %yes-no; #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT degree-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST degree-type

    The frame element represents a frame or fretboard diagram
    used together with a chord symbol. The representation is
    based on the NIFF guitar grid with additional information.
    The frame-strings and frame-frets elements give the
    overall size of the frame in vertical lines (strings) and
    horizontal spaces (frets).

    The frame element's unplayed attribute indicates what to
    display above a string that has no associated frame-note
    element. Typical values are x and the empty string. If the
    attribute is not present, the display of the unplayed
    string is application-defined.
<!ELEMENT frame
    (frame-strings, frame-frets, first-fret?, frame-note+)>
<!ATTLIST frame
    height  %tenths;  #IMPLIED
    width   %tenths;  #IMPLIED
    unplayed CDATA    #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT frame-strings (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT frame-frets (#PCDATA)>

    The first-fret indicates which fret is shown in the top
    space of the frame; it is fret 1 if the element is not
    present. The optional text attribute indicates how this
    is represented in the fret diagram, while the location
    attribute indicates whether the text appears to the left
    or right of the frame.
<!ELEMENT first-fret (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST first-fret
    location %left-right; #IMPLIED

    The frame-note element represents each note included in
    the frame. The definitions for string, fret, and fingering
    are found in the common.mod file. An open string will
    have a fret value of 0, while a muted string will not be
    associated with a frame-note element.
<!ELEMENT frame-note (string, fret, fingering?, barre?)>

    The barre element indicates placing a finger over
    multiple strings on a single fret. The type is "start"
    for the lowest pitched string (e.g., the string with
    the highest MusicXML number) and is "stop" for the
    highest pitched string.
<!ATTLIST barre
    type %start-stop; #REQUIRED

    The grouping element is used for musical analysis. When
    the element type is "start" or "single", it usually contains
    one or more feature elements. The number attribute is used
    for distinguishing between overlapping and hierarchical
    groupings. The member-of attribute allows for easy
    distinguishing of what grouping elements are in what
    hierarchy. Feature elements contained within a "stop"
    type of grouping may be ignored.
    This element is flexible to allow for non-standard analyses.
    Future versions of the MusicXML format may add elements
    that can represent more standardized categories of analysis
    data, allowing for easier data sharing.
<!ELEMENT grouping ((feature)*)>
<!ATTLIST grouping
    type %start-stop-single; #REQUIRED
    number CDATA "1"
    member-of CDATA #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT feature (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST feature

    The print element contains general printing parameters,
    including the layout elements defined in the layout.mod
    file. The part-name-display and part-abbreviation-display
    elements used in the score.mod file may also be used here
    to change how a part name or abbreviation is displayed over
    the course of a piece. They take effect when the current
    measure or a succeeding measure starts a new system.
    The new-system and new-page attributes indicate whether
    to force a system or page break, or to force the current
    music onto the same system or page as the preceding music.
    Normally this is the first music data within a measure.
    If used in multi-part music, they should be placed in the
    same positions within each part, or the results are
    undefined. The page-number attribute sets the number of a
    new page; it is ignored if new-page is not "yes". Version
    2.0 adds a blank-page attribute. This is a positive integer
    value that specifies the number of blank pages to insert
    before the current measure. It is ignored if new-page is
    not "yes". These blank pages have no music, but may have
    text or images specified by the credit element. This is
    used to allow a combination of pages that are all text,
    or all text and images, together with pages of music.

    Staff spacing between multiple staves is measured in
    tenths of staff lines (e.g. 100 = 10 staff lines). This is
    deprecated as of Version 1.1; the staff-layout element
    should be used instead. If both are present, the
    staff-layout values take priority.

    Layout elements in a print statement only apply to the
    current page, system, staff, or measure. Music that
    follows continues to take the default values from the
    layout included in the defaults element.
<!ELEMENT print (page-layout?, system-layout?, staff-layout*,
    measure-layout?, measure-numbering?, part-name-display?,
<!ATTLIST print
    staff-spacing %tenths; #IMPLIED
    new-system %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    new-page %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    blank-page NMTOKEN #IMPLIED
    page-number CDATA #IMPLIED    

    The measure-numbering element describes how measure
    numbers are displayed on this part. Values may be none,
    measure, or system. The number attribute from the measure
    element is used for printing. Measures with an implicit
    attribute set to "yes" never display a measure number,
    regardless of the measure-numbering setting.
<!ELEMENT measure-numbering (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST measure-numbering

    The sound element contains general playback parameters.
    They can stand alone within a part/measure, or be a
    component element within a direction.
    Tempo is expressed in quarter notes per minute. If 0,
    the sound-generating program should prompt the user at the
    time of compiling a sound (MIDI) file.
    Dynamics (or MIDI velocity) are expressed as a percentage
    of the default forte value (90 for MIDI 1.0).
    Dacapo indicates to go back to the beginning of the
    movement. When used it always has the value "yes".
    Segno and dalsegno are used for backwards jumps to a
    segno sign; coda and tocoda are used for forward jumps
    to a coda sign. If there are multiple jumps, the value
    of these parameters can be used to name and distinguish
    them. If segno or coda is used, the divisions attribute
    can also be used to indicate the number of divisions
    per quarter note. Otherwise sound and MIDI generating
    programs may have to recompute this.
    By default, a dalsegno or dacapo attribute indicates that
    the jump should occur the first time through, while a
    tocoda attribute indicates the jump should occur the second
    time through. The time that jumps occur can be changed by
    using the time-only attribute.
    Forward-repeat is used when a forward repeat sign is
    implied, and usually follows a bar line. When used it
    always has the value of "yes".
    The fine attribute follows the final note or rest in a
    movement with a da capo or dal segno direction. If numeric,
    the value represents the actual duration of the final note or
    rest, which can be ambiguous in written notation and
    different among parts and voices. The value may also be
    "yes" to indicate no change to the final duration.
    If the sound element applies only particular times through a
    repeat, the time-only attribute indicates which times to apply
    the sound element. The value is a comma-separated list of
    positive integers arranged in ascending order, indicating
    which times through the repeated section that the element
    Pizzicato in a sound element effects all following notes.
    Yes indicates pizzicato, no indicates arco.

    The pan and elevation attributes are deprecated in
    Version 2.0. The pan and elevation elements in
    the midi-instrument element should be used instead.
    The meaning of the pan and elevation attributes is
    the same as for the pan and elevation elements. If
    both are present, the mid-instrument elements take
    The damper-pedal, soft-pedal, and sostenuto-pedal
    attributes effect playback of the three common piano
    pedals and their MIDI controller equivalents. The yes
    value indicates the pedal is depressed; no indicates
    the pedal is released. A numeric value from 0 to 100
    may also be used for half pedaling. This value is the
    percentage that the pedal is depressed. A value of 0 is
    equivalent to no, and a value of 100 is equivalent to yes.
    MIDI devices, MIDI instruments, and playback techniques are
    changed using the midi-device, midi-instrument, and play
    elements defined in the common.mod file. When there are
    multiple instances of these elements, they should be grouped
    together by instrument using the id attribute values.

    The offset element is used to indicate that the sound takes
    place offset from the current score position. If the sound
    element is a child of a direction element, the sound offset
    element overrides the direction offset element if both
    elements are present. Note that the offset reflects the
    intended musical position for the change in sound. It
    should not be used to compensate for latency issues in
    particular hardware configurations.
<!ELEMENT sound ((midi-device?, midi-instrument?, play?)*,
<!ATTLIST sound
    tempo CDATA #IMPLIED
    dynamics CDATA #IMPLIED
    dacapo %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    segno CDATA #IMPLIED
    dalsegno CDATA #IMPLIED
    tocoda CDATA #IMPLIED
    divisions CDATA #IMPLIED
    forward-repeat %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    pizzicato %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    elevation CDATA #IMPLIED
    damper-pedal %yes-no-number; #IMPLIED
    soft-pedal %yes-no-number; #IMPLIED
    sostenuto-pedal %yes-no-number; #IMPLIED