SmartMusic Finale Garritan MusicXML

Common Elements

    MusicXML™ common.mod module

    Version 3.0
    Copyright © 2004-2011 MakeMusic, Inc.
    This MusicXML™ work is being provided by the copyright
    holder under the MusicXML Public License Version 3.0,
    available from:

    This file contains entities and elements that are common
    across multiple DTD modules. In particular, several elements
    here are common across both notes and measures.

<!-- Entities -->

    If greater ASCII compatibility is desired, entity references
    may be used instead of the direct Unicode characters.
    Currently we include ISO Latin-1 for Western European
    characters and ISO Latin-2 for Central European characters.
    These files are local copies of the W3C entities located at:
<!ENTITY % isolat1 PUBLIC
    "ISO 8879:1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 1//EN//XML"
<!ENTITY % isolat2 PUBLIC
    "ISO 8879:1986//ENTITIES Added Latin 2//EN//XML"

    Data type entities. The ones that resolve to strings show
    intent for how data is formatted and used.

    Calendar dates are represented yyyy-mm-dd format, following
    ISO 8601.
<!ENTITY % yyyy-mm-dd "(#PCDATA)">

    The tenths entity is a number representing tenths of
    interline space (positive or negative) for use in
    attributes. The layout-tenths entity is the same for
    use in elements. Both integer and decimal values are
    allowed, such as 5 for a half space and 2.5 for a
    quarter space. Interline space is measured from the
    middle of a staff line.
<!ENTITY % tenths "CDATA">
<!ENTITY % layout-tenths "(#PCDATA)">

    The start-stop and start-stop-continue entities are used
    for musical elements that can either start or stop, such
    as slurs, tuplets, and wedges. The start-stop-continue
    entity is used when there is a need to refer to an
    intermediate point in the symbol, as for complex slurs
    or for specifying formatting of symbols across system
    breaks. The start-stop-single entity is used when the same
    element is used for multi-note and single-note notations,
    as for tremolos.

    The values of start, stop, and continue refer to how an
    element appears in musical score order, not in MusicXML
    document order. An element with a stop attribute may
    precede the corresponding element with a start attribute
    within a MusicXML document. This is particularly common
    in multi-staff music. For example, the stopping point for
    a slur may appear in staff 1 before the starting point for
    the slur appears in staff 2 later in the document.
<!ENTITY % start-stop "(start | stop)">
<!ENTITY % start-stop-continue "(start | stop | continue)">
<!ENTITY % start-stop-single "(start | stop | single)">

    The yes-no entity is used for boolean-like attributes.
<!ENTITY % yes-no "(yes | no)">

    The yes-no-number entity is used for attributes that can
    be either boolean or numeric values. Values can be "yes",
    "no", or numbers.
<!ENTITY % yes-no-number "NMTOKEN">

    The symbol-size entity is used to indicate full vs.
    cue-sized vs. oversized symbols. The large value
    for oversized symbols was added in version 1.1.
<!ENTITY % symbol-size "(full | cue | large)">

    The above-below type is used to indicate whether one
    element appears above or below another element.
<!ENTITY % above-below "(above | below)">

    The up-down entity is used for arrow direction,
    indicating which way the tip is pointing.
<!ENTITY % up-down "(up | down)">

    The top-bottom entity is used to indicate the top or
    bottom part of a vertical shape like non-arpeggiate.
<!ENTITY % top-bottom "(top | bottom)">

    The left-right entity is used to indicate whether one
    element appears to the left or the right of another
<!ENTITY % left-right "(left | right)">

    The number-of-lines entity is used to specify the
    number of lines in text decoration attributes.
<!ENTITY % number-of-lines "(0 | 1 | 2 | 3)">

    The enclosure-shape entity describes the shape and
    presence / absence of an enclosure around text. A bracket
    enclosure is similar to a rectangle with the bottom line
    missing, as is common in jazz notation.
<!ENTITY % enclosure-shape
    "(rectangle | square | oval | circle |
      bracket | triangle | diamond | none)">

    Slurs, tuplets, and many other features can be
    concurrent and overlapping within a single musical
    part. The number-level attribute distinguishes up to
    six concurrent objects of the same type. A reading
    program should be prepared to handle cases where
    the number-levels stop in an arbitrary order.
    Different numbers are needed when the features
    overlap in MusicXML document order. When a number-level
    value is implied, the value is 1 by default.
<!ENTITY % number-level "(1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6)">

    The MusicXML format supports eight levels of beaming, up
    to 1024th notes. Unlike the number-level attribute, the
    beam-level attribute identifies concurrent beams in a beam
    group. It does not distinguish overlapping beams such as
    grace notes within regular notes, or beams used in different
<!ENTITY % beam-level "(1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8)">

    Common structures for formatting attribute definitions.

    The position attributes are based on MuseData print
    suggestions. For most elements, any program will compute
    a default x and y position. The position attributes let
    this be changed two ways.

    The default-x and default-y attributes change the
    computation of the default position. For most elements,
    the origin is changed relative to the left-hand side of
    the note or the musical position within the bar (x) and
    the top line of the staff (y).

    For the following elements, the default-x value changes
    the origin relative to the start of the current measure:

        - note
        - figured-bass
        - harmony
        - link
        - directive
        - measure-numbering
        - all descendants of the part-list element
        - all children of the direction-type element

    This origin is from the start of the entire measure,
    at either the left barline or the start of the system.

    When the default-x attribute is used within a child element
    of the part-name-display, part-abbreviation-display,
    group-name-display, or group-abbreviation-display elements,
    it changes the origin relative to the start of the first
    measure on the system. These values are used when the current
    measure or a succeeding measure starts a new system. The same
    change of origin is used for the group-symbol element.

    For the note, figured-bass, and harmony elements, the
    default-x value is considered to have adjusted the musical
    position within the bar for its descendant elements.

    Since the credit-words and credit-image elements are not
    related to a measure, in these cases the default-x and
    default-y attributes adjust the origin relative to the
    bottom left-hand corner of the specified page.

    The relative-x and relative-y attributes change the position
    relative to the default position, either as computed by the
    individual program, or as overridden by the default-x and
    default-y attributes.
    Positive x is right, negative x is left; positive y is up,
    negative y is down. All units are in tenths of interline
    space. For stems, positive relative-y lengthens a stem
    while negative relative-y shortens it.

    The default-x and default-y position attributes provide
    higher-resolution positioning data than related features
    such as the placement attribute and the offset element.
    Applications reading a MusicXML file that can understand
    both features should generally rely on the default-x and
    default-y attributes for their greater accuracy. For the
    relative-x and relative-y attributes, the offset element,
    placement attribute, and directive attribute provide
    context for the relative position information, so the two
    features should be interpreted together.

    As elsewhere in the MusicXML format, tenths are the global
    tenths defined by the scaling element, not the local tenths
    of a staff resized by the staff-size element.
<!ENTITY % position
    "default-x     %tenths;    #IMPLIED
     default-y     %tenths;    #IMPLIED
     relative-x    %tenths;    #IMPLIED
     relative-y    %tenths;    #IMPLIED">

    The placement attribute indicates whether something is
    above or below another element, such as a note or a
<!ENTITY % placement
    "placement %above-below; #IMPLIED">

    The orientation attribute indicates whether slurs and
    ties are overhand (tips down) or underhand (tips up).
    This is distinct from the placement entity used by any
    notation type.
<!ENTITY % orientation
    "orientation (over | under) #IMPLIED">

    The directive entity changes the default-x position
    of a direction. It indicates that the left-hand side of the
    direction is aligned with the left-hand side of the time
    signature. If no time signature is present, it is aligned
    with the left-hand side of the first music notational
    element in the measure. If a default-x, justify, or halign
    attribute is present, it overrides the directive entity.
<!ENTITY % directive
    "directive  %yes-no;  #IMPLIED">
    The bezier entity is used to indicate the curvature of
    slurs and ties, representing the control points for a
    cubic bezier curve. For ties, the bezier entity is
    used with the tied element.

    Normal slurs, S-shaped slurs, and ties need only two
    bezier points: one associated with the start of the slur
    or tie, the other with the stop. Complex slurs and slurs
    divided over system breaks can specify additional
    bezier data at slur elements with a continue type.
    The bezier-offset, bezier-x, and bezier-y attributes
    describe the outgoing bezier point for slurs and ties
    with a start type, and the incoming bezier point for
    slurs and ties with types of stop or continue. The
    attributes bezier-offset2, bezier-x2, and bezier-y2
    are only valid with slurs of type continue, and
    describe the outgoing bezier point.
    The bezier-offset and bezier-offset2 attributes are
    measured in terms of musical divisions, like the offset
    element. These are the recommended attributes for
    specifying horizontal position. The other attributes
    are specified in tenths, relative to any position
    settings associated with the slur or tied element.
<!ENTITY % bezier
    "bezier-offset  CDATA     #IMPLIED
     bezier-offset2 CDATA     #IMPLIED
     bezier-x       %tenths;  #IMPLIED
     bezier-y       %tenths;  #IMPLIED
     bezier-x2      %tenths;  #IMPLIED
     bezier-y2      %tenths;  #IMPLIED">

    The font entity gathers together attributes for
    determining the font within a directive or direction.
    They are based on the text styles for Cascading
    Style Sheets. The font-family is a comma-separated list
    of font names. These can be specific font styles such
    as Maestro or Opus, or one of several generic font styles:
    music, engraved, handwritten, text, serif, sans-serif,
    handwritten, cursive, fantasy, and monospace. The music,
    engraved, and handwritten values refer to music fonts;
    the rest refer to text fonts. The fantasy style refers to
    decorative text such as found in older German-style
    printing. The font-style can be normal or italic. The
    font-size can be one of the CSS sizes (xx-small, x-small,
    small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large) or a numeric
    point size. The font-weight can be normal or bold. The
    default is application-dependent, but is a text font vs.
    a music font.
<!ENTITY % font
    "font-family  CDATA  #IMPLIED
     font-style   CDATA  #IMPLIED
     font-size    CDATA  #IMPLIED
     font-weight  CDATA  #IMPLIED">
    The color entity indicates the color of an element.
    Color may be represented as hexadecimal RGB triples,
    as in HTML, or as hexadecimal ARGB tuples, with the
    A indicating alpha of transparency. An alpha value
    of 00 is totally transparent; FF is totally opaque.
    If RGB is used, the A value is assumed to be FF.

    For instance, the RGB value "#800080" represents
    purple. An ARGB value of "#40800080" would be a
    transparent purple.

    As in SVG 1.1, colors are defined in terms of the
    sRGB color space (IEC 61966).
<!ENTITY % color
    "color CDATA #IMPLIED">

    The text-decoration entity is based on the similar
    feature in XHTML and CSS. It allows for text to
    be underlined, overlined, or struck-through. It
    extends the CSS version by allow double or
    triple lines instead of just being on or off.
<!ENTITY % text-decoration
    "underline  %number-of-lines;  #IMPLIED
     overline  %number-of-lines;   #IMPLIED
     line-through  %number-of-lines;   #IMPLIED">
    The justify entity is used to indicate left, center, or
    right justification. The default value varies for different
    elements. For elements where the justify attribute is present
    but the halign attribute is not, the justify attribute
    indicates horizontal alignment as well as justification.
<!ENTITY % justify
    "justify (left | center | right) #IMPLIED">

    In cases where text extends over more than one line,
    horizontal alignment and justify values can be different.
    The most typical case is for credits, such as:

        Words and music by
          Pat Songwriter

    Typically this type of credit is aligned to the right,
    so that the position information refers to the right-
    most part of the text. But in this example, the text
    is center-justified, not right-justified.

    The halign attribute is used in these situations. If it
    is not present, its value is the same as for the justify
<!ENTITY % halign
    "halign (left | center | right) #IMPLIED">

    The valign entity is used to indicate vertical
    alignment to the top, middle, bottom, or baseline
    of the text. Defaults are implementation-dependent.
<!ENTITY % valign
    "valign (top | middle | bottom | baseline) #IMPLIED">

    The valign-image entity is used to indicate vertical
    alignment for images and graphics, so it removes the
    baseline value. Defaults are implementation-dependent.
<!ENTITY % valign-image
    "valign (top | middle | bottom) #IMPLIED">

    The letter-spacing entity specifies text tracking.
    Values are either "normal" or a number representing
    the number of ems to add between each letter. The
    number may be negative in order to subtract space.
    The default is normal, which allows flexibility of
    letter-spacing for purposes of text justification.
<!ENTITY % letter-spacing
    "letter-spacing CDATA #IMPLIED">

    The line-height entity specified text leading. Values
    are either "normal" or a number representing the
    percentage of the current font height  to use for
    leading. The default is "normal". The exact normal
    value is implementation-dependent, but values
    between 100 and 120 are recommended.
<!ENTITY % line-height
    "line-height CDATA #IMPLIED">

    The text-direction entity is used to adjust and override
    the Unicode bidirectional text algorithm, similar to the
    W3C Internationalization Tag Set recommendation. Values
    are ltr (left-to-right embed), rtl (right-to-left embed),
    lro (left-to-right bidi-override), and rlo (right-to-left
    bidi-override). The default value is ltr. This entity
    is typically used by applications that store text in
    left-to-right visual order rather than logical order.
    Such applications can use the lro value to better
    communicate with other applications that more fully
    support bidirectional text.
<!ENTITY % text-direction
    "dir (ltr | rtl | lro | rlo) #IMPLIED">

    The text-rotation entity is used to rotate text
    around the alignment point specified by the
    halign and valign entities. The value is a number
    ranging from -180 to 180. Positive values are
    clockwise rotations, while negative values are
    counter-clockwise rotations.
<!ENTITY % text-rotation
    "rotation CDATA #IMPLIED">

    The enclosure entity is used to specify the
    formatting of an enclosure around text or symbols.
<!ENTITY % enclosure
    "enclosure %enclosure-shape; #IMPLIED">

    The print-style entity groups together the most popular
    combination of printing attributes: position, font, and
<!ENTITY % print-style

    The print-style-align entity adds the halign and valign
    attributes to the position, font, and color attributes.
<!ENTITY % print-style-align

    The line-shape entity is used to distinguish between
    straight and curved lines. The line-type entity
    distinguishes between solid, dashed, dotted, and
    wavy lines.
<!ENTITY % line-shape
    "line-shape (straight | curved) #IMPLIED">

<!ENTITY % line-type
    "line-type (solid | dashed | dotted | wavy) #IMPLIED">

    The dashed-formatting entity represents the length of
    dashes and spaces in a dashed line. Both the dash-length
    and space-length attributes are represented in tenths.
    These attributes are ignored if the corresponding
    line-type attribute is not dashed.
<!ENTITY % dashed-formatting
    "dash-length   %tenths;  #IMPLIED
     space-length  %tenths;  #IMPLIED">

    The printout entity is based on MuseData print
    suggestions. They allow a way to specify not to print
    print an object (e.g. note or rest), its augmentation
    dots, or its lyrics. This is especially useful for notes
    that overlap in different voices, or for chord sheets
    that contain lyrics and chords but no melody. For wholly
    invisible notes, such as those providing sound-only data,
    the attribute for print-spacing may be set to no so that
    no space is left for this note. The print-spacing value
    is only used if no note, dot, or lyric is being printed.

    By default, all these attributes are set to yes. If
    print-object is set to no, print-dot and print-lyric are
    interpreted to also be set to no if they are not present.
<!ENTITY % print-object
    "print-object  %yes-no;  #IMPLIED">

<!ENTITY % print-spacing
    "print-spacing %yes-no;  #IMPLIED">

<!ENTITY % printout
     print-dot     %yes-no;  #IMPLIED
     print-lyric   %yes-no;  #IMPLIED">

    The text-formatting entity contains the common formatting
    attributes for text elements. Default values may differ
    across the elements that use this entity.
<!ENTITY % text-formatting
     xml:lang NMTOKEN #IMPLIED
     xml:space (default | preserve) #IMPLIED

    The level-display entity allows specification of three
    common ways to indicate editorial indications: putting
    parentheses or square brackets around a symbol, or making
    the symbol a different size. If not specified, they are
    left to application defaults. It is used by the level and
    accidental elements.
<!ENTITY % level-display
    "parentheses %yes-no;       #IMPLIED
     bracket     %yes-no;       #IMPLIED
     size        %symbol-size;  #IMPLIED">

    Common structures for playback attribute definitions.

    The trill-sound entity includes attributes used to guide
    the sound of trills, mordents, turns, shakes, and wavy
    lines, based on MuseData sound suggestions. The default
    choices are:
        start-note = "upper"
        trill-step = "whole"
        two-note-turn = "none"
        accelerate = "no"
        beats = "4" (minimum of "2").
    Second-beat and last-beat are percentages for landing on
    the indicated beat, with defaults of 25 and 75 respectively.
    For mordent and inverted-mordent elements, the defaults
    are different:
        The default start-note is "main", not "upper".
        The default for beats is "3", not "4".
        The default for second-beat is "12", not "25".
        The default for last-beat is "24", not "75".
<!ENTITY % trill-sound
    "start-note    (upper | main | below)  #IMPLIED
     trill-step    (whole | half | unison) #IMPLIED
     two-note-turn (whole | half | none)   #IMPLIED
     accelerate    %yes-no; #IMPLIED
     beats         CDATA    #IMPLIED
     second-beat   CDATA    #IMPLIED
     last-beat     CDATA    #IMPLIED">

    The bend-sound entity is used for bend and slide elements,
    and is similar to the trill-sound. Here the beats element
    refers to the number of discrete elements (like MIDI pitch
    bends) used to represent a continuous bend or slide. The
    first-beat indicates the percentage of the direction for
    starting a bend; the last-beat the percentage for ending it.
    The default choices are:
        accelerate = "no"
        beats = "4" (minimum of "2")
        first-beat = "25"
        last-beat = "75"
<!ENTITY % bend-sound
    "accelerate    %yes-no; #IMPLIED
     beats         CDATA    #IMPLIED
     first-beat    CDATA    #IMPLIED
     last-beat     CDATA    #IMPLIED">

    The time-only entity is used to indicate that a particular
    playback-related element only applies particular times through
    a repeated section. The value is a comma-separated list of
    positive integers arranged in ascending order, indicating which
    times through the repeated section that the element applies.
<!ENTITY % time-only
    "time-only CDATA #IMPLIED">

    Common structures for other attribute definitions.

    The document-attributes entity is used to specify the
    attributes for an entire MusicXML document. Currently
    this is used for the version attribute.

    The version attribute was added in Version 1.1 for the
    score-partwise and score-timewise documents, and in
    Version 2.0 for opus documents. It provides an easier
    way to get version information than through the MusicXML
    public ID. The default value is 1.0 to make it possible
    for programs that handle later versions to distinguish
    earlier version files reliably. Programs that write
    MusicXML 1.1 or 2.0 files should set this attribute.
<!ENTITY % document-attributes "version  CDATA  '1.0'">

    Common structures for element definitions.

    Two entities for editorial information in notes. These
    entities, and their elements defined below, are used
    across all the different component DTD modules.
<!ENTITY % editorial "(footnote?, level?)">
<!ENTITY % editorial-voice "(footnote?, level?, voice?)">

<!-- Elements -->

    Footnote and level are used to specify editorial
    information, while voice is used to distinguish between
    multiple voices (what MuseData calls tracks) in individual
    parts. These elements are used throughout the different
    MusicXML DTD modules. If the reference attribute for the
    level element is yes, this indicates editorial information
    that is for display only and should not affect playback.
    For instance, a modern edition of older music may set
    reference="yes" on the attributes containing the music's
    original clef, key, and time signature. It is no by default.
<!ELEMENT footnote (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST footnote
<!ELEMENT level (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST level
    reference %yes-no; #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT voice (#PCDATA)>

    Fermata and wavy-line elements can be applied both to
    notes and to measures, so they are defined here. Wavy
    lines are one way to indicate trills; when used with a
    measure element, they should always have type="continue"
    set. The fermata text content represents the shape of the
    fermata sign and may be normal, angled, or square.
    An empty fermata element represents a normal fermata.
    The fermata type is upright if not specified.
<!ELEMENT fermata  (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST fermata
    type (upright | inverted) #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT wavy-line EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST wavy-line
    type %start-stop-continue; #REQUIRED
    number %number-level; #IMPLIED

    Staff assignment is only needed for music notated on
    multiple staves. Used by both notes and directions. Staff
    values are numbers, with 1 referring to the top-most staff
    in a part.
<!ELEMENT staff (#PCDATA)>

    Segno and coda signs can be associated with a measure
    or a general musical direction. These are visual
    indicators only; a sound element is needed to guide
    playback applications reliably.
<!ATTLIST segno

<!ATTLIST coda

    These elements are used both in the time-modification and
    metronome-tuplet elements. The actual-notes element
    describes how many notes are played in the time usually
    occupied by the number of normal-notes. If the normal-notes
    type is different than the current note type (e.g., a
    quarter note within an eighth note triplet), then the
    normal-notes type (e.g. eighth) is specified in the
    normal-type and normal-dot elements. The content of the
    actual-notes and normal-notes elements ia a non-negative
<!ELEMENT actual-notes (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT normal-notes (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT normal-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT normal-dot EMPTY>

    Dynamics can be associated either with a note or a general
    musical direction. To avoid inconsistencies between and
    amongst the letter abbreviations for dynamics (what is sf
    vs. sfz, standing alone or with a trailing dynamic that is
    not always piano), we use the actual letters as the names
    of these dynamic elements. The other-dynamics element
    allows other dynamic marks that are not covered here, but
    many of those should perhaps be included in a more general
    musical direction element. Dynamics may also be combined as
    in <sf/><mp/>.
    These letter dynamic symbols are separated from crescendo,
    decrescendo, and wedge indications. Dynamic representation
    is inconsistent in scores. Many things are assumed by the
    composer and left out, such as returns to original dynamics.
    Systematic representations are quite complex: for example,
    Humdrum has at least 3 representation formats related to
    dynamics. The MusicXML format captures what is in the score,
    but does not try to be optimal for analysis or synthesis of
<!ELEMENT dynamics ((p | pp | ppp | pppp | ppppp | pppppp |
    f | ff | fff | ffff | fffff | ffffff | mp | mf | sf |
    sfp | sfpp | fp | rf | rfz | sfz | sffz | fz |
<!ATTLIST dynamics
<!ELEMENT other-dynamics (#PCDATA)>

    The fret, string, and fingering elements can be used either
    in a technical element for a note or in a frame element as
    part of a chord symbol.

    Fingering is typically indicated 1,2,3,4,5. Multiple
    fingerings may be given, typically to substitute
    fingerings in the middle of a note. The substitution
    and alternate values are "no" if the attribute is
    not present. For guitar and other fretted instruments,
    the fingering element represents the fretting finger;
    the pluck element represents the plucking finger.
<!ELEMENT fingering (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST fingering
    substitution %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    alternate %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    Fret and string are used with tablature notation and chord
    symbols. Fret numbers start with 0 for an open string and
    1 for the first fret. String numbers start with 1 for the
    highest string. The string element can also be used in
    regular notation.
<!ATTLIST fret
<!ELEMENT string (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST string

    The tuning-step, tuning-alter, and tuning-octave elements
    are represented like the step, alter, and octave elements,
    with different names to reflect their different function.
    They are used in the staff-tuning and accord elements.
<!ELEMENT tuning-step (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT tuning-alter (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT tuning-octave (#PCDATA)>

    The display-text element is used for exact formatting of
    multi-font text in element in display elements such as
    part-name-display. Language is Italian ("it") by default.
    Enclosure is none by default.
<!ELEMENT display-text (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST display-text
    The accidental-text element is used for exact formatting of
    accidentals in display elements such as part-name-display.
    Values are the same as for the accidental element.
    Enclosure is none by default.
<!ELEMENT accidental-text (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST accidental-text

    The part-name-display and part-abbreviation-display
    elements are used in both the score.mod and direction.mod
    files. They allow more precise control of how part names
    and abbreviations appear throughout a score. The
    print-object attributes can be used to determine what,
    if anything, is printed at the start of each system.
    Formatting specified in the part-name-display and
    part-abbreviation-display elements override the formatting
    specified in the part-name and part-abbreviation elements,
<!ELEMENT part-name-display
    ((display-text | accidental-text)*)>
<!ATTLIST part-name-display
<!ELEMENT part-abbreviation-display
    ((display-text | accidental-text)*)>
<!ATTLIST part-abbreviation-display

    The midi-device content corresponds to the DeviceName
    meta event in Standard MIDI Files. The optional port
    attribute is a number from 1 to 16 that can be used
    with the unofficial MIDI port (or cable) meta event.
    Unlike the DeviceName meta event, there can be
    multiple midi-device elements per MusicXML part
    starting in MusicXML 3.0. The optional id attribute
    refers to the score-instrument assigned to this
    device. If missing, the device assignment affects
    all score-instrument elements in the score-part.
<!ELEMENT midi-device (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST midi-device

    The midi-instrument element can be a part of either
    the score-instrument element at the start of a part,
    or the sound element within a part. The id attribute
    refers to the score-instrument affected by the change.
<!ELEMENT midi-instrument
    (midi-channel?, midi-name?, midi-bank?, midi-program?,
     midi-unpitched?, volume?, pan?, elevation?)>
<!ATTLIST midi-instrument

    MIDI 1.0 channel numbers range from 1 to 16.
<!ELEMENT midi-channel (#PCDATA)>

    MIDI names correspond to ProgramName meta-events within
    a Standard MIDI File.
<!ELEMENT midi-name (#PCDATA)>

<!-- MIDI 1.0 bank numbers range from 1 to 16,384. -->
<!ELEMENT midi-bank (#PCDATA)>

<!-- MIDI 1.0 program numbers range from 1 to 128. -->
<!ELEMENT midi-program (#PCDATA)>

    For unpitched instruments, specify a MIDI 1.0 note number
    ranging from 1 to 128. It is usually used with MIDI banks for
    percussion. Note that MIDI 1.0 note numbers are generally
    specified from 0 to 127 rather than the 1 to 128 numbering
    used in this element.
<!ELEMENT midi-unpitched (#PCDATA)>

    The volume value is a percentage of the maximum
    ranging from 0 to 100, with decimal values allowed.
    This corresponds to a scaling value for the MIDI 1.0
    channel volume controller.
<!ELEMENT volume (#PCDATA)>

    Pan and elevation allow placing of sound in a 3-D space
    relative to the listener. Both are expressed in degrees
    ranging from -180 to 180. For pan, 0 is straight ahead,
    -90 is hard left, 90 is hard right, and -180 and 180
    are directly behind the listener. For elevation, 0 is
    level with the listener, 90 is directly above, and -90
    is directly below.
<!ELEMENT elevation (#PCDATA)>

    The play element, new in Version 3.0, specifies playback
    techniques to be used in conjunction with the instrument-sound
    element. When used as part of a sound element, it applies to
    all notes going forward in score order. In multi-instrument
    parts, the affected instrument should be specified using the
    id attribute. When used as part of a note element, it applies
    to the current note only.
<!ELEMENT play ((ipa | mute | semi-pitched | other-play)*)>
<!ATTLIST play

    The ipa element represents International Phonetic Alphabet
    (IPA) sounds for vocal music. String content is limited to
    IPA 2005 symbols represented in Unicode 6.0.

    The mute element represents muting for different instruments,
    including brass, winds, and strings. The on and off values
    are used for undifferentiated mutes. The remaining values
    represent specific mutes: straight, cup, harmon-no-stem,
    harmon-stem, bucket, plunger, hat, solotone, practice,
    stop-mute, stop-hand, echo, and palm.

    The semi-pitched element represents categories of indefinite
    pitch for percussion instruments. Values are high, medium-high,
    medium, medium-low, low, and very-low.
<!ELEMENT semi-pitched (#PCDATA)>

    The other-play element represents other types of playback. The
    required type attribute indicates the type of playback to which
    the element content applies.
<!ELEMENT other-play (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST other-play