SmartMusic Finale Garritan MusicXML

Attributes Elements

    MusicXML™ attributes.mod module

    Version 3.0
    Copyright © 2004-2011 MakeMusic, Inc.
    This MusicXML™ work is being provided by the copyright
    holder under the MusicXML Public License Version 3.0,
    available from:

    The attributes DTD module contains the attributes element
    and its children, such as key and time signatures.

<!-- Entities -->

    The time-separator entity indicates how to display the
    arrangement between the beats and beat-type values in a
    time signature. The default value is none. The horizontal,
    diagonal, and vertical values represent horizontal, diagonal
    lower-left to upper-right, and vertical lines respectively.
    For these values, the beats and beat-type values are arranged
    on either side of the separator line. The none value represents
    no separator with the beats and beat-type arranged vertically.
    The adjacent value represents no separator with the beats and
    beat-type arranged horizontally.
<!ENTITY % time-separator
    "separator (none | horizontal | diagonal |
        vertical | adjacent) #IMPLIED">

    The time-symbol entity indicates how to display a time
    signature. The normal value is the usual fractional display,
    and is the implied symbol type if none is specified. Other
    options are the common and cut time symbols, as well as a
    single number with an implied denominator. The note symbol
    indicates that the beat-type should be represented with
    the corresponding downstem note rather than a number. The
    dotted-note symbol indicates that the beat-type should be
    represented with a dotted downstem note that corresponds to
    three times the beat-type value, and a numerator that is
    one third the beats value.
<!ENTITY % time-symbol
    "symbol (common | cut | single-number |
             note | dotted-note | normal) #IMPLIED">

<!-- Elements -->

    The attributes element contains musical information that
    typically changes on measure boundaries. This includes
    key and time signatures, clefs, transpositions, and staving.
    When attributes are changed mid-measure, it affects the
    music in score order, not in MusicXML document order.
<!ELEMENT attributes (%editorial;, divisions?, key*, time*,
    staves?, part-symbol?, instruments?, clef*, staff-details*,
    transpose*, directive*, measure-style*)>

    Traditional key signatures are represented by the number
    of flats and sharps, plus an optional mode for major/
    minor/mode distinctions. Negative numbers are used for
    flats and positive numbers for sharps, reflecting the
    key's placement within the circle of fifths (hence the
    element name). A cancel element indicates that the old
    key signature should be cancelled before the new one
    appears. This will always happen when changing to C major
    or A minor and need not be specified then. The cancel
    value matches the fifths value of the cancelled key
    signature (e.g., a cancel of -2 will provide an explicit
    cancellation for changing from B flat major to F major).
    The optional location attribute indicates where a key
    signature cancellation appears relative to a new key
    signature: to the left, to the right, or before the barline
    and to the left. It is left by default. For mid-measure key
    elements, a cancel location of before-barline should be
    treated like a cancel location of left.
    Non-traditional key signatures can be represented using
    the Humdrum/Scot concept of a list of altered tones.
    The key-step and key-alter elements are represented the
    same way as the step and alter elements are in the pitch
    element in the note.mod file. The optional key-accidental
    element is represented the same way as the accidental
    element in the note.mod file. It is used for disambiguating
    microtonal accidentals. The different element names
    indicate the different meaning of altering notes in a scale
    versus altering a sounding pitch.
    Valid mode values include major, minor, dorian, phrygian,
    lydian, mixolydian, aeolian, ionian, locrian, and none.

    The optional number attribute refers to staff numbers,
    from top to bottom on the system. If absent, the key
    signature applies to all staves in the part.

    The optional list of key-octave elements is used to specify
    in which octave each element of the key signature appears.
    The content specifies the octave value using the same
    values as the display-octave element. The number attribute
    is a positive integer that refers to the key signature
    element in left-to-right order. If the cancel attribute is
    set to yes, then this number refers to an element specified
    by the cancel element. It is no by default.

    Key signatures appear at the start of each system unless
    the print-object attribute has been set to "no".
<!ELEMENT key (((cancel?, fifths, mode?) |
    ((key-step, key-alter, key-accidental?)*)), key-octave*)>
    number CDATA #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT cancel (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST cancel
    location (left | right | before-barline) #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT fifths (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT key-step (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT key-alter (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT key-accidental (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT key-octave (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST key-octave
    cancel %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    Musical notation duration is commonly represented as
    fractions. The divisions element indicates how many
    divisions per quarter note are used to indicate a note's
    duration. For example, if duration = 1 and divisions = 2,
    this is an eighth note duration. Duration and divisions
    are used directly for generating sound output, so they
    must be chosen to take tuplets into account. Using a
    divisions element lets us use just one number to
    represent a duration for each note in the score, while
    retaining the full power of a fractional representation.
    For maximum compatibility with Standard MIDI Files, the
    divisions value should not exceed 16383.
<!ELEMENT divisions (#PCDATA)>

    Time signatures are represented by two elements. The
    beats element indicates the number of beats, as found in
    the numerator of a time signature. The beat-type element
    indicates the beat unit, as found in the denominator of
    a time signature.

    Multiple pairs of beats and beat-type elements are used for
    composite time signatures with multiple denominators, such
    as 2/4 + 3/8. A composite such as 3+2/8 requires only one
    beats/beat-type pair.

    The interchangeable element is used to represent the second
    in a pair of interchangeable dual time signatures, such as
    the 6/8 in 3/4 (6/8). A separate symbol attribute value is
    available compared to the time element's symbol attribute,
    which applies to the first of the dual time signatures.
    The time-relation element indicates the symbol used to
    represent the interchangeable aspect of the time signature.
    Valid values are parentheses, bracket, equals, slash, space,
    and hyphen.

    A senza-misura element explicitly indicates that no time
    signature is present. The optional element content
    indicates the symbol to be used, if any, such as an X.
    The time element's symbol attribute is not used when a
    senza-misura element is present.

    The print-object attribute allows a time signature to be
    specified but not printed, as is the case for excerpts
    from the middle of a score. The value is "yes" if
    not present. The optional number attribute refers to staff
    numbers within the part, from top to bottom on the system.
    If absent, the time signature applies to all staves in the
<!ELEMENT time
    (((beats, beat-type)+, interchangeable?) | senza-misura)>
<!ATTLIST time
    number CDATA #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT interchangeable (time-relation?, (beats, beat-type)+)>
<!ATTLIST interchangeable
<!ELEMENT beats (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT beat-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT senza-misura (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT time-relation (#PCDATA)>

    Staves are used if there is more than one staff
    represented in the given part (e.g., 2 staves for
    typical piano parts). If absent, a value of 1 is assumed.
    Staves are ordered from top to bottom in a part in
    numerical order, with staff 1 above staff 2.
<!ELEMENT staves (#PCDATA)>

    The part-symbol element indicates how a symbol for a
    multi-staff part is indicated in the score. Values include
    none, brace, line, bracket, and square; brace is the default.
    The top-staff and bottom-staff elements are used when the
    brace does not extend across the entire part. For example, in
    a 3-staff organ part, the top-staff will typically be 1 for
    the right hand, while the bottom-staff will typically be 2
    for the left hand. Staff 3 for the pedals is usually outside
    the brace. By default, the presence of a part-symbol element
    that does not extend across the entire part also indicates a
    corresponding change in the common barlines within a part.
<!ELEMENT part-symbol (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST part-symbol
    top-staff CDATA #IMPLIED
    bottom-staff CDATA #IMPLIED

    Instruments are only used if more than one instrument is
    represented in the part (e.g., oboe I and II where they
    play together most of the time). If absent, a value of 1
    is assumed.
<!ELEMENT instruments (#PCDATA)>

    Clefs are represented by the sign, line, and
    clef-octave-change elements. Sign values include G, F, C,
    percussion, TAB, jianpu, and none. Line numbers are
    counted from the bottom of the staff. Standard values are
    2 for the G sign (treble clef), 4 for the F sign (bass clef),
    3 for the C sign (alto clef) and 5 for TAB (on a 6-line
    staff). The clef-octave-change element is used for
    transposing clefs (e.g., a treble clef for tenors would
    have a clef-octave-change value of -1). The optional
    number attribute refers to staff numbers within the part,
    from top to bottom on the system. A value of 1 is
    assumed if not present.

    The jianpu sign indicates that the music that follows
    should be in jianpu numbered notation, just as the TAB
    sign indicates that the music that follows should be in
    tablature notation. Unlike TAB, a jianpu sign does not
    correspond to a visual clef notation.

    Sometimes clefs are added to the staff in non-standard
    line positions, either to indicate cue passages, or when
    there are multiple clefs present simultaneously on one
    staff. In this situation, the additional attribute is set to
    "yes" and the line value is ignored. The size attribute
    is used for clefs where the additional attribute is "yes".
    It is typically used to indicate cue clefs.

    Sometimes clefs at the start of a measure need to appear
    after the barline rather than before, as for cues or for
    use after a repeated section. The after-barline attribute
    is set to "yes" in this situation. The attribute is ignored
    for mid-measure clefs.

    Clefs appear at the start of each system unless the
    print-object attribute has been set to "no" or the
    additional attribute has been set to "yes".
<!ELEMENT clef (sign, line?, clef-octave-change?)>
<!ATTLIST clef
    number CDATA #IMPLIED
    additional %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    size %symbol-size; #IMPLIED
    after-barline %yes-no; #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT clef-octave-change (#PCDATA)>

    The staff-details element is used to indicate different
    types of staves. The staff-type element can be ossia,
    cue, editorial, regular, or alternate. An alternate staff
    indicates one that shares the same musical data as the
    prior staff, but displayed differently (e.g., treble and
    bass clef, standard notation and tab). The staff-lines
    element specifies the number of lines for a non 5-line
    staff. The staff-tuning and capo elements are used to
    specify tuning when using tablature notation. The optional
    number attribute specifies the staff number from top to
    bottom on the system, as with clef. The optional show-frets
    attribute indicates whether to show tablature frets as
    numbers (0, 1, 2) or letters (a, b, c). The default choice
    is numbers. The print-object attribute is used to indicate
    when a staff is not printed in a part, usually in large
    scores where empty parts are omitted. It is yes by default.
    If print-spacing is yes while print-object is no, the score
    is printed in cutaway format where vertical space is left
    for the empty part.
<!ELEMENT staff-details (staff-type?, staff-lines?,
    staff-tuning*, capo?, staff-size?)>
<!ATTLIST staff-details
    number         CDATA                #IMPLIED
    show-frets     (numbers | letters)  #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT staff-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT staff-lines (#PCDATA)>

    The tuning-step, tuning-alter, and tuning-octave
    elements are defined in the common.mod file. Staff
    lines are numbered from bottom to top.
<!ELEMENT staff-tuning
    (tuning-step, tuning-alter?, tuning-octave)>
<!ATTLIST staff-tuning

    The capo element indicates at which fret a capo should
    be placed on a fretted instrument. This changes the
    open tuning of the strings specified by staff-tuning
    by the specified number of half-steps.

    The staff-size element indicates how large a staff
    space is on this staff, expressed as a percentage of
    the work's default scaling. Values less than 100 make
    the staff space smaller while values over 100 make the
    staff space larger. A staff-type of cue, ossia, or
    editorial implies a staff-size of less than 100, but
    the exact value is implementation-dependent unless
    specified here. Staff size affects staff height only,
    not the relationship of the staff to the left and
    right margins.
<!ELEMENT staff-size (#PCDATA)>

    If the part is being encoded for a transposing instrument
    in written vs. concert pitch, the transposition must be
    encoded in the transpose element. The transpose element
    represents what must be added to the written pitch to get
    the correct sounding pitch.

    The transposition is represented by chromatic steps
    (required) and three optional elements: diatonic pitch
    steps, octave changes, and doubling an octave down. The
    chromatic and octave-change elements are numeric values
    added to the encoded pitch data to create the sounding
    pitch. The diatonic element is also numeric and allows
    for correct spelling of enharmonic transpositions.

    The optional number attribute refers to staff numbers,
    from top to bottom on the system. If absent, the
    transposition applies to all staves in the part. Per-staff
    transposition is most often used in parts that represent
    multiple instruments.
<!ELEMENT transpose
    (diatonic?, chromatic, octave-change?, double?)>
<!ATTLIST transpose
    number CDATA #IMPLIED
<!ELEMENT diatonic (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT chromatic (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT octave-change (#PCDATA)>

    Directives are like directions, but can be grouped together
    with attributes for convenience. This is typically used for
    tempo markings at the beginning of a piece of music. This
    element has been deprecated in Version 2.0 in favor of
    the directive attribute for direction elements. Language
    names come from ISO 639, with optional country subcodes
    from ISO 3166.
<!ELEMENT directive (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST directive
    xml:lang NMTOKEN #IMPLIED

    A measure-style indicates a special way to print partial
    to multiple measures within a part. This includes multiple
    rests over several measures, repeats of beats, single, or
    multiple measures, and use of slash notation.
    The multiple-rest and measure-repeat symbols indicate the
    number of measures covered in the element content. The
    beat-repeat and slash elements can cover partial measures.
    All but the multiple-rest element use a type attribute to
    indicate starting and stopping the use of the style. The
    optional number attribute specifies the staff number from
    top to bottom on the system, as with clef.
<!ELEMENT measure-style (multiple-rest |
    measure-repeat | beat-repeat | slash)>
<!ATTLIST measure-style
    number CDATA #IMPLIED

    The slash-type and slash-dot elements are optional children
    of the beat-repeat and slash elements. They have the same
    values as the type and dot elements, and define what the
    beat is for the display of repetition marks. If not present,
    the beat is based on the current time signature.
<!ELEMENT slash-type (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT slash-dot EMPTY>

    The text of the multiple-rest element indicates the number
    of measures in the multiple rest. Multiple rests may use
    the 1-bar / 2-bar / 4-bar rest symbols, or a single shape.
    The use-symbols attribute indicates which to use; it is no
    if not specified.
<!ELEMENT multiple-rest (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST multiple-rest
    use-symbols %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    The measure-repeat and beat-repeat element specify a
    notation style for repetitions. The actual music being
    repeated needs to be repeated within the MusicXML file.
    These elements specify the notation that indicates the

    The measure-repeat element is used for both single and
    multiple measure repeats. The text of the element indicates
    the number of measures to be repeated in a single pattern.
    The slashes attribute specifies the number of slashes to
    use in the repeat sign. It is 1 if not specified. Both the
    start and the stop of the measure-repeat must be specified.
<!ELEMENT measure-repeat (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST measure-repeat
    type %start-stop; #REQUIRED
    slashes NMTOKEN #IMPLIED

    The beat-repeat element is used to indicate that a single
    beat (but possibly many notes) is repeated. Both the start
    and stop of the beat being repeated should be specified.
    The slashes attribute specifies the number of slashes to
    use in the symbol. The use-dots attribute indicates whether
    or not to use dots as well (for instance, with mixed rhythm
    patterns). By default, the value for slashes is 1 and the
    value for use-dots is no.
<!ELEMENT beat-repeat ((slash-type, slash-dot*)?)>
<!ATTLIST beat-repeat
    type %start-stop; #REQUIRED
    slashes NMTOKEN #IMPLIED
    use-dots %yes-no; #IMPLIED

    The slash element is used to indicate that slash notation
    is to be used. If the slash is on every beat, use-stems is
    no (the default). To indicate rhythms but not pitches,
    use-stems is set to yes. The type attribute indicates
    whether this is the start or stop of a slash notation
    style. The use-dots attribute works as for the beat-repeat
    element, and only has effect if use-stems is no.
<!ELEMENT slash ((slash-type, slash-dot*)?)>
<!ATTLIST slash
    type %start-stop; #REQUIRED
    use-dots %yes-no; #IMPLIED
    use-stems %yes-no; #IMPLIED